Treatment-Thyroid

Care giveres [family members] are put to task during the diagnostic investigations and treatment process, especially if it involves surgery. For their special benefit I wish to tell what Surgeons may not tell due to paucity of time and you do not ask then due to stress of the illness.


Medical treatment

Levothyroxine is a stereoisomer of thyroxine which is degraded much slower and can be administered once daily in patients with hypothyroidism.

Graves' disease may be treated with the thioamide drugs propylthiouracil, carbimazole or methimazole, or rarely with Lugol's solution. Hyperthyroidism as well as thyroid tumors may be treated with radioactive iodine.

Percutaneous Ethanol Injections, PEI, for therapy of recurrent thyroid cysts, and metastatic thyroid cancer lymph nodes, as an alternative to the usual surgical method.

Thyroid surgery

Thyroid surgery is performed for a variety of reasons. A nodule or lobe of the thyroid is sometimes removed for biopsy or for the presence of an autonomously functioning adenoma causing hyperthyroidism. A large majority of the thyroid may be removed, a subtotal thyroidectomy, to treat the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease, or to remove a goitre that is unsightly or impinges on vital structures. A complete thyroidectomy of the entire thyroid, including associated lymph nodes, is the preferred treatment for thyroid cancer. Removal of the bulk of the thyroid gland usually produces hypothyroidism, unless the person takes thyroid hormone replacement.

If the thyroid gland must be removed surgically, care must be taken to avoid damage to adjacent structures, the parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Both are susceptible to accidental removal and/or injury during thyroid surgery. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), a hormone needed to maintain adequate amounts of calcium in the blood. Removal results in hypoparathyroidism and a need for supplemental calcium and vitamin D each day.

Radioiodine therapy

The iodine uptake can be high in countries with iodine deficiency, but low in iodine sufficient countries. The 1999 release of rhTSH thyrogen in the USA, can boost the uptakes to 50-60% allowing the therapy with iodine 131. The gland shrinks by 50-60%, but can cause hypothyroidism, and rarely pain syndrome cause by radiation thyroiditis that is short lived and treated by steroids
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